Covers the period that began with the settlement of agricultural tribes on the territory of Ukraine and lasted until the appearance of the historical Slavs. One of the most famous agricultural crops of the Copper Age is the Trypillia culture. During its heyday, it owned the largest settlements in Europe. More than two thousand monuments of Trypillia culture have been discovered in Ukraine.
Around the VI-IX centuries, the embryos of Slavic cities appeared on the territory of modern Ukraine. The Slavs were actively involved in the large settlement of tribes in Eastern and Central Europe.
This period marks four centuries of our history (IX-XIII centuries), when Kyiv became the “mother of Russian cities”. These were not only the times of formation of a huge state, the borders of which stretched from the Volga to the Carpathians, but also the growth of many cities, the formation of crafts, flourishing culture, trade, state religion. Then silver hryvnias were cast, the first coins with the prince’s trident were minted, and the first majestic shrines were built on the banks of the Dnieper.
An important role in the formation of this period was played by such prominent figures as: Princess Olga (Grand Duchess of Kiev), Prince-warrior Svyatoslav the Brave, Vladimir the Great – Baptist of Russia, Prince of Kiev Yaroslav the Wise, Danylo Romanovych – King of Ukraine-Russia.
This is a period that is closely connected with the history of the Ukrainian Cossacks, who for centuries defended the religious and cultural identity of their people and eventually became a symbol of a freedom-loving nation for Ukrainians. Dmytro “Baida Vyshnevetsky” became the founder of the traditions of the first Zaporozhian Sich and the first Cossack hetman, who in 1553 built a castle-fortress on the island of Mala Khortytsia at his own expense.
The Ukrainian Cossack state experienced the greatest rise during the reign of Hetman of the Zaporozhian Army Bohdan Khmelnytsky, who was a real statesman, military leader and diplomat.
No less famous figures of this period were: Colonel Ivan Bohun, the famous hetman of the Zaporozhian Army Peter Konashevich-Sagaidachny, Hetman Ivan Vyhovsky – the winner of the Moscow army at the Battle of Konotop.
The Cossack state, led by Hetman Ivan Mazepa, played a key role in the war against the Ottoman Empire and his ally in the struggle for Ukraine’s independence from the Moscow state, Philip Orlik, created the document “Treaties and Resolutions”, better known as the “Constitution of Philip Orlik”, which is considered one of the oldest in Europe.
One of the most prominent Ukrainian families of the XIV-XVII centuries is the family of the Ostroh princes. He presented to the world famous figures of Ukrainian and Eastern European politics, military affairs, diplomacy, science and culture. Among the prominent representatives of this family was Constantine of Ostrog – Grand Hetman of Lithuania, who won the historic battle with the Moscow army near Orsha in 1514. Prince Vasyl-Konstantin Ostrozky, a senator of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, founded a higher school, the Ostroh Academy. With his help, the Ostroh Bible was published.
These are a number of events related to the national liberation struggle of the Ukrainian people. From the period of the Ukrainian Revolution of 1917–1921 to the Ukrainian Liberation Movement on ethnic Ukrainian lands in 1920–1950 under the conditions of occupation of its lands by various states and during the Second World War of 1939–1945. In particular, during the formation of Ukrainian statehood in 1917–1921, Ukraine went through several important stages: the rule of the Central Rada headed by historian, public and political figure Mykhailo Hrushevsky; Hetmanate headed by the last Hetman of Ukraine Pavel Skoropadsky; Directories under the leadership of Simon Petliura.
The Ukrainian nation made a huge contribution to the fight against Nazism both on its own territory and in the territories of other states in World War II. Many Ukrainians fought in Allied armies and became heroes of different countries. Ukraine suffered great human and material losses in this war, and took one of the prominent places in contributing to the defeat of Nazi Germany and its allies.
It is the largest country in Europe, its geographical center. This is a centuries-old history and the original desire for independence. It has beautiful nature, rich culture and glorious traditions. Ukrainians are a nation not by blood, but by spirit.
The modern history of Ukraine is: