Ukrainian folk instruments are one of the manifestations of the culture of the Ukrainian people. Musical instruments of Ukraine are very rich and diverse and include a wide range of wind, string and percussion instruments. A significant part of Ukrainian folk musical instruments dates back to the times of Rus. The centers of handicraft making of violins, flutes and horns- “abiki” have been partially preserved in the Carpathians, Podlasie, Volyn and Polissya; trembita and drumba – in Boykivshchyna, Hutsulshchyna and Maramoroshchyna; horns and bagpipes – only in the Hutsul region. However, it is really nice that the art of making traditional folk instruments (including banduras, lyres) is gradually being revived and gaining popularity throughout Ukraine
The toy is a special work of Ukrainian folk art, because it is something without which it is impossible to imagine childhood. That is why Ukrainians paid special attention to the manufacture of toys, used a variety of materials. We have mostly ceramic and wooden examples of the XIX century: dolls, birds, carts, grasshoppers, furniture, whirligigs, windmills; mechanical toys; puzzles (“troubles”); cockroaches (“giggles”). In addition to the purchased ones, in every Ukrainian family they were made on their own from vine, straw, grass, paraffin, bones, fabric, in Carpathian Ukraine – also from dough and sheep cheese. The function of sacred talismans was performed by a knotted doll made of fabric – motanka (doll), in ancient times it was used in rituals associated with folk festivals. Researchers also associate rag dolls with ancestral worship
Weaving was an important craft of every Ukrainian family – they made linen, towels, scarves, rugs, rugs, carpets. The main materials for weaving were flax, hemp and wool. Ukrainian weavers worked on machines of two types: vertical (“cross”, “robbery”) and horizontal. The products were decorated with geometrized ornaments: transverse stripes, rhombuses, stars, rosettes, stylized images of flowers and birds. The most famous center of towel weaving from the XV century – Krolevets, Sumy oblast. In the 19th century, Kyiv region (Boguslav carpets), Poltava region (Reshetyliv carpets), Podillya and Volyn were also famous for weaving. From the 18th century, in addition to folk carpets, there were so-called lordly carpets and tapestries
Sculpture is one of the oldest arts, dating back centuries. This is an art form associated with the creation of three-dimensional art forms in real space. That is why the sculptor relies on the practice of plasticity and modeling, which he needs to reproduce the volume of a figure or object. The sculpture depicts mainly man, less animals, its main genres – portrait, historical, domestic, symbolic, allegorical images, animalistic genre. According to its form, there are two types of sculpture: relief and round sculpture. Recently, new artists have appeared in Ukrainian sculptural art, who associate their work with easel sculpture
Icon painting – the art of writing icons, a kind of painting, has a cult purpose. Icon painting is especially characteristic and developed in the Orthodox tradition, as well as in Eastern Christianity in general. Widespread and popular in Ukraine, Russia, Romania, Greece, Serbia, Georgia and other Eastern European and Middle Eastern regions. The icon is a kind of window into the spiritual world, so it has a special language, where each sign is a symbol. The purpose of the icon is to direct all our feelings, mind and all our human nature to its true purpose – on the path of transformation. Ukrainian iconography is characterized by light, light coloring
The technique of painting with metal on the eggshell is unique and still unknown in any country. The author and inventor of this technology is Anatoliy Boyko. The work of the Volyn master was recognized as a world heritage of mankind. Anatoliy not only decorates the shell – in his works he also uses the technique of extracting eggshells, which is quite a long process. Thanks to this technique, the shell is 9 centimeters high and stretches 11 times
There are four types of painted eggs – krapanka, scratch, krashanka and pysanka. Many legends, superstitions, legends, customs, traditions, and rites are associated with Easter eggs and painted eggs (Easter eggs). Easter egg – an egg decorated with traditional symbols, which are written with wax and dyes. In the minds of many peoples, the egg embodied the source of life and the universe. Researchers believe that the Ukrainian pysanka has more than 100 symbolic drawings. The first finds of painted shells in Ukraine date back to the IV century BC.
The most common types of artistic woodworking are carving, sawing and turning. The ancient Slavs were famous for artistic wood carving (snicarstvo) in the XI century. Carving reached the highest level in Ukraine in the XVIII-XIX centuries. Used for decorating the details of buildings: doorposts, beams, trim, shutters, as well as household and household items: chests, sledges, tables, beds, shelves, bowls and more. Modern masters also pay special attention to the production of highly artistic products (including sculptures) and wooden souvenirs
One of the types of artistic activity, works of which combine aesthetic and practical qualities. Decorative means “decorate”. Utility means that things have a practical use. The main task of decorative and applied arts – to make a good material environment of a man, his life. The division of decorative and applied arts into genres is carried out according to the purpose of the subject – furniture, clothing, utensils, etc .; by technique of execution – carving, weaving, painting; by material – wood, ceramics, textiles, stone, vine, ie the use of natural materials; metals and their alloys, plastics, glass, porcelain, paper, etc., ie the use of artificial, man-made materials
This is the traditional art of making a korovai – a large round loose bread with dough decorations, sometimes covered with colored icing. Usually baked for the holidays, performs festive and ceremonial functions. Korovai is an integral attribute of a Ukrainian wedding
This is the processing of metal by forging. Blacksmithing in the lands of modern Ukraine has been known since the time of the Trypillia culture, long before BC. Blacksmiths have long made weapons and various household items (axes, knives, hammers, shovels, hoes, plowshares, nails, locks, latches, iron gates and fences, stirrups, etc.). Important types of blacksmithing were horseshoeing, as well as forging carts and especially pulling iron tires on wheels. Nowadays, mechanized blacksmithing is a stamping production of metal products, and blacksmithing as a folk craft is gaining popularity every year and becomes a highly artistic craft
Craft of manufacturing of home-made household and artistic products from a variety of elastic raw materials. Ukraine has a rich and ancient tradition, especially in Polissya. Flexible easy-to-reach materials are used for weaving: vine, bark of certain trees, first of all young linden (birch) and birch (birch bark, bast), willow, coniferous and oak twigs, spruce roots, pines, etc. Wickerwork is one of the oldest crafts and covers a wide range of items from building elements, furniture to small items and toys. Herbaceous plants such as straw are also widely used in artistic weaving
In ancient times, special people – candle makers (candlemakers) were engaged in the production of candles and their sale. Home-made candles were widespread in Ukraine, even after the appearance of factory production. Candles were made of wax. The very making of candles took place with great reverence. When making candles to God, they took care of the purity of work and material, chose for this certain days and even hours, while reciting prayers and lighting a lamp in front of the icon. Trinity candles, made by a special technology, painted and decorated, became really widespread. Colored candles were also common, they were made by adding paint to wax. Today, the craft of making candles is experiencing its “second birth”
One of the types of folk decorative art of Ukrainians. Ornamental or plot image on fabric, leather, made by various manual or machine seams. Embroidery is used in Ukrainian folk life primarily on clothing, mainly on women’s and men’s shirts. In addition, embroidery is common on such household items as bedspreads, tablecloths, pillowcases, towels, etc.
Painting – a form of fine art associated with the transfer of visual images by applying paints to the surface, such as oil paints, gouache, tempera and other means of painting. There are five types of painting: easel (works that exist regardless of the place of creation, mostly paintings created on the easel of the artist), monumental (performed directly on the walls and ceilings of houses and other buildings), decorative, theatrical and decorative, miniature. A special kind of ancient folk crafts is painting on glass. In Ukraine, this art form spread in the second half of the nineteenth century. Masters paint paintings on glass, mostly icons, paint dishes, glass ornaments
Pottery is the processing of clay and the manufacture of various kitchen utensils, as well as bricks, tiles, tiles and other ceramics. Pottery has been known in Ukraine since Neolithic times (V-VII millennium BC). Most ceramic pottery in Kievan Rus was made on a hand-made pottery wheel, which appeared here in the II century AD. In the XIV-XV centuries began to use the foot circle. Due to the rich deposits of clay, pottery was spread throughout Ukraine, where a variety of utensils were made: pots, bowls and half-bowls, jugs, makitry, barrels, jars, decorative utensils, children’s toys and more. The largest centers of pottery, which work today – are Opishne, Kosiv, Bubnivka